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Paediatrics Research Review
This Review features key medical articles from global paediatrics journals with commentary from Professor Nick Freezer, Dr Nigel Crawford and Dr Katie Heathershaw. The Review covers topics such as paediatric endocrinology, nephrology, pharmacology, paediatric fractures, adolescent health, paediatric neuropsychology and congenital heart disease.
Topics covered include:
- Mass azithromycin dosing and childhood mortality in Africa
- Azithromycin has activity against a number of childhood infections, and randomised trials from sub-Saharan Africa have demonstrated that mass azithromycin administration reduces childhood mortality compared with placebo.
- An intervention for promoting language development in children
- Language development in children is very important in developing communication and socialisation. As this study demonstrates, there are a number of things that parents can do to promote their child’s early language and literacy development.
- Bronchiolitis in infancy and recurrent wheeze in childhood
- Viral respiratory infections, particularly with RSV and rhinovirus, are the most common causes of wheezing in infants and young children, and they have important influences on the development of asthma.
- Effectiveness and duration of immunity after DTaP vaccination
- The protection provided by diphtheria and tetanus toxoids decreases over time, necessitating booster doses in childhood, adolescence, and adulthood.
- A wearable digital device improves socialisation in children with ASD
- Many children with autism struggle to form friendships, in part because they have difficulty with social skills such as recognising facial expressions to enhance their social interactions
- Early subthreshold aerobic exercise for sport-related concussion
- The effects of concussion on the developing brain are increasingly of concern with possible long term sequelae. The symptoms and disability attributed to post-concussion syndrome are greatest within the first 7–10 days for the majority of patients.
- Pharmacological treatments for neonatal abstinence syndrome
- A newborn infant born to a mother taking, using, or misusing opioids and/or other substances is at risk for withdrawal.
- Maternal smoking and the risk of sudden unexpected infant death
- A number of risk factors for sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) have been identified. These include exposure to cigarette smoke, maternal age <20 years, prematurity, prone sleeping position, soft bedding, and overheating.
- Nebulised surfactant reduces respiratory distress in preterm infants
- Endotracheal intubation has been the standard technique of surfactant administration. However, intubation may be complicated by transient airway obstruction, pulmonary injury (volutrauma and barotrauma), pulmonary air leak, and airway injury.
- Virtual reality distraction reduces needle procedural pain
- Pain is a complex experience comprising sensory, cognitive, behavioural, and psychological components, which can cause fear and greatly affect compliance with care for future procedures.
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